Tag Archives: celts

Why the Petroglyphs at Auga dos Cebros are Important

Recently an archaeological expedition in Auga dos Cebros, Galicia, Spain, has uncovered some important petroglyphs that has changed the timeline for when we think Atlantic and Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world first met.

The depiction, which is painted on rock, shows a boat with oars and sails that is of the same general design as bronze age Mediterranean culture from 2,000bce, or, the Bronze Age. As boats in the Atlantic region of that time had a different general form and also lacked sails, it appears that this petroglyph is in fact a depiction of a visiting southern friend.

21941168835_b1abe4aa3d

The archaeologists working on the art’s identification found many similar depictions of boats on Cretan stamps and artwork from approximately 4,000ya, which is what lead them to date the Auga dos Cebros art to the same period. However, due to lack of detail in the Auga dos Cebros depiction, it’s impossible to match an exact model to the much more intricate depictions found in Crete. Still, there’s a ballpark, and it’s a much different, earlier one then we thought we were playing in.

There’s ample evidence of this kind of cross cultural communication and contact during the Iron Age, nearly 1,000 years later. So the fact that these cultures met a millennia before we thought they had is something big indeed.

But why is it a big find? For anyone studying the trajectory of how a culture developed, it’s important to understand that no culture develops in a vaccuum. Though today people talk about the world being a global society, it was not in the ancient world a series of unconnected and independantly moving parts.  Previously, it was assumed certain cultures developed early on without certain influences, but this tableau has revealed that the reach of the mediterranean trade network was much bigger than we realized. Considering the time period in which this contact was made as well, we may begin to rethink ideas of technology and also what the visiting culture’s limitations and values were, that they sought to explore such a remote territory with the technology they had available.

You can follow more of archaeologist Javier Costas Goberna’s excavation at Dig Ventures . Or watch their intro video!

_________________________________________

________________________________________________________

Witches, Legend, and Queimada

When the Celts first made their migration from the upper reaches of Europe down to the Iberian Peninsula it was the mid Iron Age. With them they brought to this green and familiar seeming land many traditions and stories, only few of which have survived today. Unlike the common view of Spain as a hot, passionate, flamenco dancing, guitar playing culture, the history of the Galician people is marked by ancient nights full of magic and mystery, of witches circled in the darkness, churning fiery brews to ward off evil spirits, and attract the good.

The ‘Conxuro de Queimada’ is one of these surviving rituals (though there is debate if the rite is actually as old as some claim, or if it was in fact a more recent invention around the 1950’s. Entirely possible that even if it was dreamed up in the 20th century, that there was some evidence tying it to an earlier time). Queimada itself is a spirit distilled from wine and then flavored with herbs, then often sugar, lemon peel, coffee, and cinnamon.

Queimada

The ritual of the drink is supposed to be a warding one that frightens off any spirits in the area with malintent. The forests of Galicia are often referred to as the Bosque Animada, or the animated wood, where said ne’er-do-welling sprites lie in wait to do travelers harm. It was originally a witches brew, but is now an all occasions kind of event, whether you’re just meeting up with friends or having a big party, queimada is a great addition to the get together.

But of course the most perfect night to have your conxuro is the Noche de San Juan, or St. John’s night (also called Witches’ Night), which is June 23rd. The conxuro demands a certain level of spooky ambiance, so once night falls, after brewing up the queimada, people gather round, turn off the lights, and recite the ‘spell’ meant to ward off evil.

“ …Hear! Hear the roars

of those that cannot

stop burning in the firewater,

becoming so purified.

And when this beverage

goes down our throats,

we will get free of the evil

of our soul and of any charm…”

(You can read the whole thing here )

Then, the queimada is lit on fire. It burns an incredible bright blue, and as the brandy burns off (and is added back in slowly), the fire makes ‘sigils’ and ‘ letters’ on top of the liquid, supposedly writing in the witches’ language (it is actually just a byproduct of how the brandy burns, but it’s neat nevertheless).

img_queimada_gallega_41139_600

1280px-Queimada_fuego

After the fire burns out, the queimada is ready! Poured out into cups and shared among the gathered, making for a happy party indeed.

Soria Will Surprise You

Soria is not the best known province in Spain, but it is the best hidden jewel. This summer, Colorfully has exciting tours for sporty clients that also want a taste of luxury.

 

The three biggest sites to see in Soria are the Hillfort of Numancia, site of a famous Roman siege, Wolf River Canyon with its hidden hermitages, and the Black Lagoon – sounds spooky, but is one of the most pristine and beautiful places in the country. Colorfully Spain offers horseback and hiking tours to all three places, as well as exclusive access to the ongoing archaeological excavation of Numancia.

Numancia

800px-Numancia

Numancia, located in Soria,was one of the last but most famous Celtiberian settlements in Spain. It was besieged by the Romans in 133bce, who had been in conflict with the settlement for nigh on 20 years by that point. Rather than giving in to the Roman army, the Numantinos decided to die free than live as slaves, and burnt their city to the ground.

 

As many Celtiberian settlements were, Numancia was built on a high hill. This meant no shelter from the rather harsh winters in Soria, but it also meant a highly defensible high ground that managed to repel the Roman army for several decades.

 

Wolf River Canyon (Cañon de Rios Lobos)

canon_del_rio_lobos1

Cañon del Rio Lobos, or Wolf River Canyon, is a fascinating place. A natural wonder, the canyon is full of life and forest, and also, the mysterious hermitage of Saint Bartholomew of the Knights Templar. His monastery is hidden in the hills, not too far of a walk, and well worth the trip.

The Black Lagoon (La Laguna Negra)

TRVX_LagunaNegraSoria

La Laguna Negra, or the Black Lagoon, was created by glaciers and carved into the Urbión Mountains millennia ago. According to legend, it is nearly bottomless and there is, according to a 1912 story, a creature living in its murky depths. The reality of the Laguna Negra is that it is a gorgeous and one of a kind natural park with an incredible view of the pine forests. There are foxes, deer, and many different kinds of local birds, as well as a few fun surprises along its hiking routes.

And, after a great active day, at night our clients have access to wine spas, tastings, gourmet meals, and the luxury of the Parador – a unique and first class hotel you can only find in certain cities in Spain. So come with us this summer and find out why you should be talking about Soria!

 

If you would like more information about our active summer tours to this area, please don’t hesitate to contact us.

7 Major Archaeological Sites in Spain

Ready for a viritual tour of our country’s archaeological sites? Let’s rock.

Tarraco

image

Tarraco, just outside modern Tarragona, Cataluña, was one of the biggest and more important Roman settlements on the Iberian Peninsula. Though the exact date of its founding is unknown, its first official mention was in 218bce, and so it was likely established, at least as a fully Roman settlement, at some point during the Second Punic War.

image

Tarraco served as a winter base and resupply area for soldiers at war with the Celtiberians during the Republic, and later as a base of operations and port under the rule of the High Empire. Eventually it would be taken over by the Visigoths once the Roman Empire fell and their hold on Hispania was broken, but the site very much retains an early Roman flare to this day.

image


Numancia

Numancia, located in Soria,was one of the last but most famous Celtiberian settlements in Spain. It was besieged by the Romans in 133bce, who had been in conflict with the settlement for nigh on 20 years by that point.

image

Rather than giving in to the Roman army, the Numantinos decided to die free than live as slaves, and burnt their city to the ground.

image

As many Celtiberian settlements were, Numancia was built on a high hill. This meant no shelter from the rather harsh winters in Soria, but it also meant a highly defensible high ground that managed to repel the Roman army for several decades.

Itálica

image

Situated just outside of Seville, Itálica is a fabulously preserved Roman city. It was founded around 206bce and was originally settled to treat Roman soldiers wounded in the nearby battle of Ilipa, where they defeated the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War.

image

Aside from being almost fully excavated and very well cared for, the archaeology isn´t the only reason that Itálica is one of the most frequently visited sites in Spain; it is also host to the Cross Internacional de Itálica, which is an international cross country running competition.

Dolmen de Viera

image

The fabled Dolmen de Viera is a single chamber monolithic tomb outside of Antequera, Málaga. It dates to the copper age, being somewhere between 4,500 and 5,800 years old. Though it is presumed to be a burial chamber, as are most dolmen, not much was found inside except a few grave goods and bone tools.

image

Also, like most Iberian tombs of its kind, it faces just slightly south of due east, so that daybreak illuminates the burial chamber.

Atapuerca

image

The archaeological site of Atapuerca is one of the most important in Europe, because it has traces of hominid life in the area from at least 400,000 years ago. The site lies in the small municipality of Atapuerca, about 20 kilometres north east of Burgos.

image

This site represents some of the greatest evidence available for many different generations and evolutions of early man, evidence of their habits including tools, food sharing and cultural activities, and some of the most intact skeletons ever retrieved from the Middle Pleistocene era.

Reccopolis

image

Because I can´t very well do an archaeology of Spain summary without mentioning them, Reccopolis, near Guadalajara, is one of the better preserved settlements of the Visigoths. It is one of only four cities in Europe to be newly founded and settled between the fifth and eighth centuries.

image

As they coincided with the Moorish rule, the Visigoths were more than willing to let their Muslim counterparts come oversee the settlement in the end of the eighth century. Thus, the site has Moorish influence as well, though the Moors did not keep a hold of it for long, abandoning it at the end of the tenth century.

Medinat Azahara

image

An archaeological tour of Spain would not be complete without a visit to the Moors. The Medinat Azahara is from the 10th century, during the Umayyad Caliphate, and was originally built as a small city apart for the Caliph to receive guests.

image

Spanning approximately 112 hectares (of which only 11 have been fully excavated), it boasted several living quarters, for the Caliph, as well as the aristocracy and serving staff, a mosque, several gardens, and an administrative district among other things.  Though it is currently still under excavation, you can tour the area.

Surf Gastronomy Fusion Tours in Asturias

Colorfully Spain announces brand new, exciting surf based tours in northern Spain for the summer of 2016!

The north of Spain is not only a great place to eat and taste wine, it’s also a natural paradise and a heaven for hikers and surfers alike. Now, Colorfully is offering innovative new tours that combine the two!

00841

From paddle surfing down the green mountain rivers, stopping at cider houses along the way, to surfing by day and tapas crawls by night, Colorfully has a range of options for outdoor adventurers. And of course, a sampling of the region’s history and archaeology, from the castros of the north, to the church of Santiago de Compostela.

tumblr_inline_nlj0dsQdsR1spkgha_500

If you are interested in our outdoor adventure focused summer packages, contact us for more information!