Tag Archives: archaeology

Why the Petroglyphs at Auga dos Cebros are Important

Recently an archaeological expedition in Auga dos Cebros, Galicia, Spain, has uncovered some important petroglyphs that has changed the timeline for when we think Atlantic and Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world first met.

The depiction, which is painted on rock, shows a boat with oars and sails that is of the same general design as bronze age Mediterranean culture from 2,000bce, or, the Bronze Age. As boats in the Atlantic region of that time had a different general form and also lacked sails, it appears that this petroglyph is in fact a depiction of a visiting southern friend.

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The archaeologists working on the art’s identification found many similar depictions of boats on Cretan stamps and artwork from approximately 4,000ya, which is what lead them to date the Auga dos Cebros art to the same period. However, due to lack of detail in the Auga dos Cebros depiction, it’s impossible to match an exact model to the much more intricate depictions found in Crete. Still, there’s a ballpark, and it’s a much different, earlier one then we thought we were playing in.

There’s ample evidence of this kind of cross cultural communication and contact during the Iron Age, nearly 1,000 years later. So the fact that these cultures met a millennia before we thought they had is something big indeed.

But why is it a big find? For anyone studying the trajectory of how a culture developed, it’s important to understand that no culture develops in a vaccuum. Though today people talk about the world being a global society, it was not in the ancient world a series of unconnected and independantly moving parts.  Previously, it was assumed certain cultures developed early on without certain influences, but this tableau has revealed that the reach of the mediterranean trade network was much bigger than we realized. Considering the time period in which this contact was made as well, we may begin to rethink ideas of technology and also what the visiting culture’s limitations and values were, that they sought to explore such a remote territory with the technology they had available.

You can follow more of archaeologist Javier Costas Goberna’s excavation at Dig Ventures . Or watch their intro video!

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Leovigild, the Conquering King

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Liuvigild, also known as Leovigild, was King of Septimania and Hispania from 568 to 586, and also King of Galicia for the latter part of his reign.

So why is this guy important?

For a number of reasons. This man took a dispirate, fractured land of people fighting for their borders and indeed against themselves and united them. He established whole cities at a time when almost no new urban centers were being founded. But I should start at the beginning. First, a little history.

After the (arguably second) sacking of Rome by the Visigoths around 410, things were falling apart for the Roman Empire. They were losing control of their Western territories, and several groups such as the Sueve, Vandals, and Alani had started moving across the Pyrenees and onto the Iberian peninsula. Though they felt the Visigoths to be barbarians, that didn’t really stop Rome from making treaties with them, so they contracted the Visigoths to head over to Hispania and help get things back in line around 416.

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^Visigoths aren’t playing around. When they decide to sack, they really sack.

However, as evidenced by the aforementioned sacking, the Roman’s control over the Visigoths was tenuous at best. Though they recalled the Visigothic troops in 418, Rome had little control over whether or not the Visigoths actually followed the order.

Our Visigothic friends had been having problems with their northern Frankish neighbors, and after a series of brutal defeats by the Frankish King Clovis, and the death of their king, Alaric, they moved south over the mountains and into what would become modern day Spain. This wasn’t an easy task, though.

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As you can see, there were a lot of different groups who had settled across the peninsula. The Visigoths had to fight their way through most of it in order to carve out a place for themselves.

But if there was one thing the Visigoths were good at, it was fighting. So they did manage to settle, despite opposition. Still, between the vestiges of the Hispano-Roman empire, the ever present thorn in their side that was the Vascones (Basques), and border issues with the Sueve, it was not a peaceful time.

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^Batter up, Hispano-Romans.

The thing about Visigothic heirarchy is that it was an elective monarchy, meaning the people chose their King to essentially be their war leader, but also in theory to best represent their interests and their principles. But we know how that plays out in reality; principles clash, power corrupts, or people are just never happy with their ruler. But, when your people solve their problems by whacking people’s heads off with homemade clubs, it’s a health hazard to be their king.

Between 507 and 711ce there were twenty six Visigothic kings, a huge number given the mere 200 years of rule. Of these, five were assassinated, two died under “mysterious circumstances”, and one was overthrown. The rest were plagued by constant rebellion. So how could a culture even hope to quell the problems on all their borders when they couldn’t even sort out their own?

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^Please, no more, we’re so tired of being assassinated.

That is where Leovigild comes in. The first thing he did upon taking the throne was to go on a quest of restoring royal authority to this fractured realm. He got on his horse and set forth across every inch of his known country. And then into some other territories as well, with his army in tow. To quote spainthenandnow.com  : “Parts of a Byzantine enclave in the south east were recovered (570-71), a rebellious Córdoba was reintegrated into the kingdom (572), and the Sueves of the North West conquered (584). In 583, Leovigild ended a five-year armed rebellion led by his older son, Hermenegild, in Baetica.”

By the time he died in 586, Leo had conquered pretty much everything save a few Byzantine outposts and the ever entrenched Basques in the Pyrenees.

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^Knock knock, who’s there, now you belong to Leovigild.

Why was all this conquering important?

Well, aside from being incredible, considering all the religious, political, and principle division within his own force, it allowed Leovigild to take actual legal steps towards unity. Until this point in time, the Visigoths had not truly considered themselves independent of Rome, but more its allies (despite all that sacking). They were still using Roman symbols and coinage. Leovigild, feeling that a national and imperial identity was important, introduced symbols of his own; robes, crowns, coins, thrones, etc, and even founded his own cities, building them from the ground up. Of course, these symbols were still Roman and Byzantine inspired, and nowhere near as good of make as what said counterparts produced.

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^Rather misshapen, but it was a start.

However, the most important (and lasting) was the Codex Revisus, which was a unifying codex that revoked laws against intermarriage with Hispano-Romans as well as promoted the Arian faith as the only faith, via the law code. The laws were much more structured and pulled many different previous codes together.

Though Leo’s code itself did not survive, it was a significant influence on King Reccasunith’s Liber Ludiciorum, a code established 80 years later that would become the basis for the Spanish Christian law codes established in the Middle Ages, and still survive today.

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So, in short, in a time where unity was a precious luxury, Leovigild created stability. Though his efforts may have been insufficient for the empire to last long, it did for 130 years after his passing, and his legacy, both physical in the form of ruins at Reccopolis, and ideological, still stand even now.

Many thanks to Wikipedia Commons and Getty Images, as well as Spain Then and Now for the images.

Soria Will Surprise You

Soria is not the best known province in Spain, but it is the best hidden jewel. This summer, Colorfully has exciting tours for sporty clients that also want a taste of luxury.

 

The three biggest sites to see in Soria are the Hillfort of Numancia, site of a famous Roman siege, Wolf River Canyon with its hidden hermitages, and the Black Lagoon – sounds spooky, but is one of the most pristine and beautiful places in the country. Colorfully Spain offers horseback and hiking tours to all three places, as well as exclusive access to the ongoing archaeological excavation of Numancia.

Numancia

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Numancia, located in Soria,was one of the last but most famous Celtiberian settlements in Spain. It was besieged by the Romans in 133bce, who had been in conflict with the settlement for nigh on 20 years by that point. Rather than giving in to the Roman army, the Numantinos decided to die free than live as slaves, and burnt their city to the ground.

 

As many Celtiberian settlements were, Numancia was built on a high hill. This meant no shelter from the rather harsh winters in Soria, but it also meant a highly defensible high ground that managed to repel the Roman army for several decades.

 

Wolf River Canyon (Cañon de Rios Lobos)

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Cañon del Rio Lobos, or Wolf River Canyon, is a fascinating place. A natural wonder, the canyon is full of life and forest, and also, the mysterious hermitage of Saint Bartholomew of the Knights Templar. His monastery is hidden in the hills, not too far of a walk, and well worth the trip.

The Black Lagoon (La Laguna Negra)

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La Laguna Negra, or the Black Lagoon, was created by glaciers and carved into the Urbión Mountains millennia ago. According to legend, it is nearly bottomless and there is, according to a 1912 story, a creature living in its murky depths. The reality of the Laguna Negra is that it is a gorgeous and one of a kind natural park with an incredible view of the pine forests. There are foxes, deer, and many different kinds of local birds, as well as a few fun surprises along its hiking routes.

And, after a great active day, at night our clients have access to wine spas, tastings, gourmet meals, and the luxury of the Parador – a unique and first class hotel you can only find in certain cities in Spain. So come with us this summer and find out why you should be talking about Soria!

 

If you would like more information about our active summer tours to this area, please don’t hesitate to contact us.

7 Major Archaeological Sites in Spain

Ready for a viritual tour of our country’s archaeological sites? Let’s rock.

Tarraco

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Tarraco, just outside modern Tarragona, Cataluña, was one of the biggest and more important Roman settlements on the Iberian Peninsula. Though the exact date of its founding is unknown, its first official mention was in 218bce, and so it was likely established, at least as a fully Roman settlement, at some point during the Second Punic War.

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Tarraco served as a winter base and resupply area for soldiers at war with the Celtiberians during the Republic, and later as a base of operations and port under the rule of the High Empire. Eventually it would be taken over by the Visigoths once the Roman Empire fell and their hold on Hispania was broken, but the site very much retains an early Roman flare to this day.

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Numancia

Numancia, located in Soria,was one of the last but most famous Celtiberian settlements in Spain. It was besieged by the Romans in 133bce, who had been in conflict with the settlement for nigh on 20 years by that point.

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Rather than giving in to the Roman army, the Numantinos decided to die free than live as slaves, and burnt their city to the ground.

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As many Celtiberian settlements were, Numancia was built on a high hill. This meant no shelter from the rather harsh winters in Soria, but it also meant a highly defensible high ground that managed to repel the Roman army for several decades.

Itálica

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Situated just outside of Seville, Itálica is a fabulously preserved Roman city. It was founded around 206bce and was originally settled to treat Roman soldiers wounded in the nearby battle of Ilipa, where they defeated the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War.

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Aside from being almost fully excavated and very well cared for, the archaeology isn´t the only reason that Itálica is one of the most frequently visited sites in Spain; it is also host to the Cross Internacional de Itálica, which is an international cross country running competition.

Dolmen de Viera

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The fabled Dolmen de Viera is a single chamber monolithic tomb outside of Antequera, Málaga. It dates to the copper age, being somewhere between 4,500 and 5,800 years old. Though it is presumed to be a burial chamber, as are most dolmen, not much was found inside except a few grave goods and bone tools.

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Also, like most Iberian tombs of its kind, it faces just slightly south of due east, so that daybreak illuminates the burial chamber.

Atapuerca

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The archaeological site of Atapuerca is one of the most important in Europe, because it has traces of hominid life in the area from at least 400,000 years ago. The site lies in the small municipality of Atapuerca, about 20 kilometres north east of Burgos.

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This site represents some of the greatest evidence available for many different generations and evolutions of early man, evidence of their habits including tools, food sharing and cultural activities, and some of the most intact skeletons ever retrieved from the Middle Pleistocene era.

Reccopolis

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Because I can´t very well do an archaeology of Spain summary without mentioning them, Reccopolis, near Guadalajara, is one of the better preserved settlements of the Visigoths. It is one of only four cities in Europe to be newly founded and settled between the fifth and eighth centuries.

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As they coincided with the Moorish rule, the Visigoths were more than willing to let their Muslim counterparts come oversee the settlement in the end of the eighth century. Thus, the site has Moorish influence as well, though the Moors did not keep a hold of it for long, abandoning it at the end of the tenth century.

Medinat Azahara

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An archaeological tour of Spain would not be complete without a visit to the Moors. The Medinat Azahara is from the 10th century, during the Umayyad Caliphate, and was originally built as a small city apart for the Caliph to receive guests.

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Spanning approximately 112 hectares (of which only 11 have been fully excavated), it boasted several living quarters, for the Caliph, as well as the aristocracy and serving staff, a mosque, several gardens, and an administrative district among other things.  Though it is currently still under excavation, you can tour the area.

Exclusive Access to Ruins of Reccopolis

We are happy to announce that we now have a partnership with the Parque Arqueológico de Recópolis. We will now be offering day trips to the great archaeological site, as well as courses ranging from ceramic making, as the ancients would have done, to star gazing and astronomy instruction, and photography.

These exciting new options also offer exclusive access to the site for our visitors.

For more information, contact us, and we’ll take you to the middle ages for an experience you will never forget.

Archaeology 101: The Dolmens of Antquera

First of all, let’s ask, what is a dolmen, anyway?

Dolmens are single chamber, megalithic funerary structures that generally consist of two or more standing stones (called orthostats) with a capstone on top. They were often set into hills or covered in earth to form barrows.

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Most of these structures, which are peppered all over Western Europe, are from the Early Neolithic, that is, 4,000-3,000 bce, or around 6,000-5,000 years ago, though some are from as late as the Early Chalcolithic.

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Before talking about the dolmens themselves, let’s talk about the area of Antequera. It is in a lower lying depression, surrounded by El Torcal National Park to the South (a varied range of Karst mountains), La Peña to the East (which I will discuss later), and then several series of high hillocks to the North and West. The area would have been very different 5,500 years ago, around when the dolmens were built. Paleoenvironmental evidence from the area suggests there were many lakes and ponds, and dense pine and oak forests. Many types of herbs and flowers flourished in the damp climate, and pastures and dry copses of olive trees like the picture above were much rarer at the time.

Humans left their mark on the area, as several other sites have been found surrounding the two main dolmens, though whether or not all of these sites are contemporary to each other is still unknown. The point being, it was a rich area that saw quite a bit of human activity and modification during the mid Neolithic era.

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The Dolmen de Viera is the older of the two dolmens we are going to talk about here. When it dates to is unclear, but experts say between 5,800 to 4,500 years ago. As with the majority of European megalithic tombs, this dolmen is oriented just south of the summer rising sun (azimuth of 96 degrees).

As with many neolithic, so termed ‘animist’ societies, this type of concordance with solar activity was common, and not only seen with megalithic structures. The question always asked is ‘why?’ when examining these orientations, but that is a very complicated answer, and we will leave it for another article. Suffice to say that the Dolmen de Viera follows the same kind of pattern that is expected from a society that viewed its world as cyclic and reccurrent as opposed to linear.

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As you can see the interior of the structure is lintelled and high enough for an average height person to walk down. It is (conincidentally enough :p ) considered a corridor tomb which ends in a funerary chamber. In short, it is a giant, elongated container under a mound of earth.

The tomb was found empty and looted, however since megalithic funeral rite across the continent was ritualized and strictly repetitive down to details, we can make some assumptions about what Viera was used for; burials at this time were collective and often times dozens of skeletons are found inside these chambers. However, it is not necessarily that they were all interred simultaneously, but also possibly of varying generations. Bodies were laid out on the ground, other, older skeletons often shoved out of the way to make room for the newly dead. These corpses were always accompanied by grave goods, from tools to shoes to arrows and knives or bowls.

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If the Dolmen de Viera is typical of the structures across the continent, then the Dolmen de Menga is the complete opposite. It is still a corridor tomb that is under a barrow mound with a chamber at the end, but that is where the similarities end.

First of all, it is huge. The slabs used to create this dolmen are positively enormous and the amount of labor that must have gone into its construction moreso, especially considering it was built in the 3rd milennium bce. It reaches a height of 3.5m in the atrium, truly impressive, and also boasts three large pillars, presumably to help bear the weight of the capstones. But they also give the space more the feel of a temple, and experts are currently postulating on Menga’s possible other uses aside from only the funerary.

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Second of all, in the atrium we can find an almost 20m deep shaft dug into the sandstone that is in alignment with the three pillars.

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It is unclear what the purpose of this shaft would have been. It is a rather unusual element in a megalithic structure such as this. But, also, as this dolmen was previously excavated to some degree in 1847, it is not clear if the shaft was explored by or caused by the previous excavation.

Lastly, this dolmen faces Northeast (azimuth of 45 degrees) unlike most of dolmens. This notable difference from other similar structures is due to the presence of La Peña, which dominates the skyline and is directly in front of the mouth of the Dolmen de Menga.

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It is assumed that La Peña, due to its distinct appearance as a human face and also the positioning of the Dolmen de Menga, played a large role in the area’s prehistoric culture. In the ‘chin’ of the mountain archaeologists have also uncovered a post paleolithic cave which has a myriad of early human drawings.

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It does seem that the opening to Menga faces directly to this cave, but whether or not the neolithic society who made the dolmen were aware of this cave is unknown.

There is a third structure, the Dolmen del Romeral, but that is a very different structure that is almost 1,500 years later than the two dolmens we have visited here, and so, we will visit it another time.

For now, stay megalithic my fellow archaeologists.

If you want more information about the Dolmenes de Antequera, you can visit the website of the Conjunto Arqueolóico right here.

Do you want to visit these incredible dolmens? Well now you can, with Colorfully Spain’s new Fall & Winter programming package to Andalucia. Click here for more details!

Archaeology Tours in Andalucía

Andalucia, though most known for sea and sun, has a wealth of cultural and natural resources to offer visitors. Colorfully Spain’s latest programs for autumn and winter highlight the most interesting and unknown gems of Spain’s southernmost region.

From the traditional food of Antequera, to the Paleolithic caves of Ronda, our new tours explore a wide range of exciting archaeological sites, traditional, non touristic restaurants and markets, cultural heritage sites, and more.

We offer our clients a chance to interact and learn about Spain through participation, with cooking lessons, dance classes and spectaculars, and outdoor adventure, led by guides who are experts in their fields, and with 24 hour a day, gate to gate bilingual service.

While we will always go to the main sites – who would miss out on the Alhambra? – we also offer clients the road less traveled, heading to small villages with deep histories, so they will take away experiences other trips will never duplicate.

 If you are interested in more information about our Southern Routes for this autumn, winter, and spring, don’t hesitate to contact us!

Harvest Season in La Rioja

Colorfully Spain has exciting trip to La Rioja you won’t find anywhere else!
With harvest season just around the corner, now is the time to think about autumn trips to one of the most beautiful places in Europe. Spain’s wine country is famous for its gastronomy, but has so much else to offer.

Colorfully Spain has a new route planned to the region that is a fusion of archaeological adventure, light outdoors sport, and some of the best cuisine on the continent. Bike, hike, or horseback ride through a 2,500 year old archaeological site on the banks of the Duero in Soria, or explore the secrets of the Black Lagoon, then head north to the vineyards of La Guardia to participate in the harvest and sample wines from the various smaller bodegas that you can’t experience outside their home towns.

With trips leaving from July through October, Colorfully Spain is continuing its promise of making history and culture come alive for our clients, providing 24 hour gate to gate bilingual service, personalized itineraries, and ecofriendly business.

Interested in our La Rioja route? Check out more information here!

Featured Site: The Great Mosque of Córdoba

Every few months we feature one of the incredible archaeological or cultural sites from our trips, giving you a free mini tour and a little bit of info. Follow us for the next in our series of these Spanish wonders.

The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, (also called the Mezquita and the Great Mosque of Córdoba, or the Cathedral of the Assumption of Our Lady,) is a medieval Islamic mosque that was converted into a Catholic Christian cathedral in the Spanish city of Córdoba, Andalucía. The mosque is regarded as the one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.

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The actual land had at one point been a Roman temple to the god Janus, and later used by various Visigothic sects for their purposes, and finally, taken over by the Moorish Prince Abd al-Rahman I. Around the end of the 8th century, he broke ground and started construction on the Mosque.

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It took two centuries to build, but the end result was a sprawling, red-and-marble palace surrounded by orange groves and ornately carved fountains, which is still intact today. To give you an idea of the size of this marvelous behemoth, it is about 24,000 square meters big and it comprises 19 naves, over 1,200 pillars, almost 300 chandeliers, and it is lit by nearly 1,500 lamps, including some made from the bells of Santiago Compostela, brought to the Mosque in the mid-13th century.

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But enough about specs; the Mosque is more than the sum of its parts. Walking under the high arches through the vast interior chambers is awesome, in the literal sense of the word. Whatever anyone’s faith, it’s easy to feel reverence inside a place like the Great Mosque, if only for they time and faith put into it by the people who built it.

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And it is beautiful; it is easy to spend a half-day strolling the grounds, getting a glimpse of what life was like in ancient times. It is a true testament to the ability of Moorish architects and craftsman, and amazing in its detail and style, considering the age in which it was created.

–> Want to visit the Mezquita de Córdoba? Click here!

**Special thanks to our friends at ArtenCordoba for use of their fantastic photos!

Archaeology 101: Who Were the Tartessians?

The quick and dirty on one of Spain’s oldest and most obscure peoples.

First of all, let’s get a little prehistory down. While most people know that the archaeology of Spain includes Moors, Celts, Romans and Greeks, and know about Spain’s absolute wealth of early hominid fossils and stone age cave paintings, the pre-roman, Bronze and Copper age societies are not very well known or popularized. And there were a lot of them. Not all of their origins are clear, or how their societies first settled and grew, but here will take a quick look into a few of their legacies.

When we talk about the Tartessians, we mean the people living in southwest Spain, around what is modern day Seville and Cadiz, from the late Bronze Age to the early Iron Age (from around 1200bce – 550bce). The name Tartessos was the Greek name given to what is now the Guadalquivir River, and the name was also applied to a large city found on the river bank. What the Tartessians called themselves, we don’t know.

Tartessos was a place rich in natural resources. They lived well with plenty of fishing, livestock, mining and smithing to sustain their economy, and according to all sources, they were a highly urbanized society with great skill at engineering, particularly when it came to moderating the flow of rivers. This suggests they had some rudimentary water power at their disposal.

It is mentioned by many Greek and Roman authors alike as being a font of metals, predominently copper, tin, silver, and gold, as you can see from the metal work above. They had been mining at least since there year 1000bce, and in fact, over the middle to late period of their civilization, became the main supplier of bronze throughout the Mediterranean.

They were renown for fine metalwork and filagre among other things. During the latter part of their reign over the southwest of Spain, called the “oriental period”, they had quite a bit of contact with the Phoenicians, trading constantly with them, and allowing them to set up outposts within the Tartessian empire’s borders. This helped the Phoenicians greatly, as having such open access to Tartessian mines was crucial for them after they lost their own assets in the Siani in the 8th century.

Contact with the Phoenicians had a great impact on Tartessian culture, as reflected in their imagery. Later sculpture and iconography took on an almost Mesopotamian flare, as seen in the above bronze plaque of Astarte, or similar goddess, that dates to the 8th century, Spain.

But make no mistake, the Tartessians were not ‘given’ their culture by the Phoenicians or anyone else. They were a long standing people with a rich and complex history before the Greeks, Etruscans, Phoenicians, or Romans ever set foot in their land. As stated by Strabo, “They are considered the most educated of the Iberians, they have a scripture, even have historical chronicles, poems, and laws in verse of which they say are six thousand … ”

This was an advanced and enlightened Bronze Age society, and had their own writing system, that is considered the oldest of the Iberian scripts. Though the staele that have survived the time do show considerable influence from the Phoenician alphabet, Tartessian is a language unto itself and has not been fully deciphered. It is also likely that recently archaeological discoveries show that there was more than one written dialect of the language.

There were many famous figures in Tartessian society that were noted by outside contemporary writers, but none as much as King Argantonio, who was famed for his wisdom, wealth, and generosity. He was praised for his friendship, and in one story, invited a good many Greeks whose territory had been encroached upon by the Persians, to stay and settle in his lands. The Greeks did not take him up on the offer, but did accept his gift of over a ton of silver, so they could pay for the construction of a defensive wall.

Eventually, despite their wealth and strong trading ties with the other Bronze Age societies, with the coming of the Iron Age, the Tartessian Empire fell by the wayside, and the Cartheginians and Romans soon took their place. But their legacy remains, and if you want more of their beautiful art or just more information, check out the National Museum of Archaeology of Spain and their protohistory exhibit online, or, the Archaeological Museum of Seville for more specific finds from the excavations.